Hemorrhoids, also known as piles are swollen veins around the anus or lower rectum due to increased pressure by straining during bowel movements, chronic diarrhea or constipation, prolonged sitting and/or obesity. 

There are two types of hemorrhoids, internal hemorrhoids (developed within the anus or rectum) and external hemorrhoids (developed outside the anus). The common symptoms of hemorrhoid include pain, irritation and itching around the anus, swelling near the anus, fecal leakage and rectal bleeding. 

Depending on the severity of the hemorrhoids, surgical and non-surgical treatment are suggested. Non-surgical methods of prevention and treatment include consuming food that are high in fiber to make stools soft, avoid straining during bowel movement to reduce the pressure on hemorrhoids and by dinking lots of water to prevent hard stools. Application of hemorrhoid creams, ointments or suppository may provide relieve, and cure mild hemorrhoids. 

However, in more severe situations, these non-surgical methods are only temporary measures to recover from the symptoms but do not treat the underlying condition.

A rubber band ligation is the most widely used procedure to treat internal hemorrhoids. This minimally invasive procedure involves cutting off the blood supply of the hemorrhoid by placing a rubber band around it and hence allowing the hemorrhoid to drop out.

In some cases of hemorrhoids, a sigmoidoscopy may be done to look for secondary causes of hemorrhoids such colon and rectal tumours.

Surgical hemorrhoidectomy is used to remove hemorrhoids which are extensive or severe. Dr. Shankar uses the two well established techniques to perform this surgery, i.e. Milligan Morgan (open technique) and Ferguson (close technique). Laser Hemorrhoidoplasty and Stapler Hemorrhoidopexy are also offered to patients who meet the criteria.

Being trained by Dr Alexis Freitas at Krankenhaus Göttlicher Heiland, Vienna, Dr Shankar’s expertise include the use of a newer procedure, Doppler Guided Hemorrhoidal Artery Ligation (DG-HAL). This addition has brought a diverse touch in Dr. Shankar’s practice in managing hemorrhoids..